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IRS Form 8621: Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) – Instructions, Threshold, and Penalties

Written by: Josh Katz, CPA

Investing globally can present lucrative opportunities, but it also comes with a set of regulatory considerations, particularly when dealing with Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs). For U.S. taxpayers who hold investments in PFICs, reporting requirements are crucial and involve Form 8621. Here’s a comprehensive guide to understanding Form 8621, including its purpose, thresholds, reporting instructions, and associated penalties.

If you need expert assistance in comprehending the tax consequences of foreign investments, feel free to reach out to Universal Tax Professionals. Our international tax accountants specialize in navigating the complexities of PFIC investments and can assist you in understanding your expat tax obligations. With tailored US expat tax services, we cater to the specific needs of American citizens living abroad.

What is a PFIC?

A PFIC, or Passive Foreign Investment Company, is a specific classification under U.S. tax law for certain non-U.S. corporations that meet certain criteria related to their income and assets. The concept of a PFIC was introduced to address U.S. taxpayers’ investments in foreign corporations that primarily generate passive income or hold passive assets.

The primary purpose of the PFIC rules is to prevent U.S. taxpayers from deferring tax on income earned through passive investments held in foreign corporations. Without these rules, taxpayers might be incentivized to invest in foreign corporations to defer U.S. tax on passive income, thereby potentially avoiding or delaying U.S. tax obligations.

Passive Income vs. Active Income

In the context of PFIC classification, it’s important to differentiate between passive income and active income:

  • Passive Income: This includes income generated from investments and not from active business operations. Examples include dividends, interest, capital gains from the sale of securities, rental income, and royalties.
  • Active Income: This refers to income earned from active business operations, such as revenue from the sale of goods or services, wages, salaries, and professional fees.

Criteria for PFIC Classification

To determine if a foreign corporation is a PFIC, it must meet one of the following tests:

  • Income Test: A foreign corporation meets the income test if at least 75% of its gross income for the taxable year is passive income. Passive income includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents, annuities, and gains from the investment property sale or exchange.
  • Asset Test: Alternatively, a foreign corporation meets the asset test if at least 50% of its average assets for the taxable year produce, or are held for the production of, passive income.

Examples of PFICs

Foreign Mutual Funds

Mutual funds based outside the United States are often classified as PFICs if they meet certain criteria, such as having 75% or more of their income derived from passive sources or 50% or more of their assets held for producing passive income.

Foreign Holding Companies

Companies incorporated outside the United States that primarily hold investments or assets generating passive income, such as dividends, interest, rents, or royalties, could be classified as PFICs.

Foreign Pension Plans

Some foreign pension plans, especially those structured as trusts or investment funds, may qualify as PFICs if they primarily generate passive income or hold passive assets.

Certain Foreign Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)

Similar to mutual funds, ETFs based outside the U.S. may be treated as PFICs if they meet the IRS criteria for passive income generation and asset holdings.

Certain Foreign Insurance Companies

Insurance companies based outside the U.S. may be classified as PFICs if they primarily generate income from investments rather than underwriting activities.

Table of Contents

Who Must File Form 8621?

Any U.S. person who is a direct or indirect shareholder of a PFIC during the tax year must file Form 8621. This includes individuals, corporations, partnerships, trusts, and estates. Shareholders of a PFIC are generally subject to reporting requirements regardless of whether they receive distributions from the PFIC.

Exceptions to Filing Form 8621

While the general rule is that any shareholder of a PFIC must file Form 8621, there are certain exceptions and considerations to keep in mind:

Source: IRS.gov

De Minimis Exception:

The IRS provides a de minimis exception for certain small shareholders. This exception applies if:

  • The aggregate value of all PFIC stock owned by the taxpayer and related persons is $25,000 or less ($50,000 or less for married couples filing jointly) at the end of the tax year, or
  • The taxpayer did not receive an excess distribution from the PFIC during the tax year and has not made certain elections (e.g., QEF election, mark-to-market election).

Ownership Through Certain Entities:

In some cases, shareholders may not have a direct filing requirement if they own PFIC stock indirectly through certain types of entities (e.g., mutual funds, partnerships) that are themselves subject to PFIC reporting.

IRS Form 8621 Filing Thresholds and Requirements

Excess Distribution Threshold

The primary trigger for filing Form 8621 is receiving an “excess distribution” from a PFIC. An excess distribution is any distribution received from a PFIC that exceeds 125% of the average annual distributions received in the prior three years (or, if shorter, the shareholder’s holding period). If you receive an excess distribution, you are required to file Form 8621 for that tax year.

Ownership Thresholds

Even if you do not receive an excess distribution, you may still be required to file Form 8621 if you are a direct or indirect shareholder of a PFIC. Generally, the filing requirement is triggered if:

  • You directly own shares of a PFIC.
  • You indirectly own shares through another entity, such as a partnership or corporation.
  • You are a beneficiary of a trust that owns shares of a PFIC.

Information Required on Form 8621

Form 8621 collects detailed information about the PFIC, including:

  • Identification of the PFIC, such as name, address, and employer identification number (EIN).
  • Details of the shareholder’s interest in the PFIC, including the number of shares owned and the holding period.
  • Income and distributions received from the PFIC during the tax year.
  • Elections made regarding the treatment of PFIC income, such as the Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) election or Mark-to-Market (MTM) election.

How to Complete IRS Form 8621?

Filling out IRS Form 8621 requires careful attention to detail due to the complexities involved with reporting on Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs).

Here’s a step-by-step instruction and guide on how to complete the key parts of Form 8621:

Part I: Annual Information

  • Identification of PFIC: Provide the name, address, and Employer Identification Number (EIN) of the PFIC.
  • Shareholder Information: Enter your name, taxpayer identification number (TIN), and the tax year for which you are filing the form.
  • PFIC Stock Ownership: Indicate the number of PFIC shares owned directly or indirectly through partnerships, corporations, or trusts. Specify the beginning and ending dates of your ownership during the tax year.
  • Elections: Check the appropriate box to indicate if you are making any elections for the PFIC, such as the Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) election or Mark-to-Market (MTM) election.

Part II: Excess Distribution and Gain Calculation

  • Excess Distribution:

    • If you received an excess distribution from the PFIC during the tax year, calculate the excess distribution amount.
    • Enter the total distributions received and calculate the average distributions for the prior three years (if applicable).
    • Determine if the distribution exceeds 125% of the average distributions and calculate the excess amount.

    Tax Calculation: Determine the taxable portion of the excess distribution and then calculate the interest charge on the deferred tax liability related to the excess distribution.

Part III: Summary of Annual Information

  • Income and Distributions: Summarize the total income and distributions received from the PFIC during the tax year. Include any amounts previously taxed as excess distributions from prior years.

  • Election Summary: Provide a summary of any elections made regarding the PFIC, such as QEF or MTM elections.

Additional Considerations

  • QEF Election: If you make a QEF election, attach a separate statement providing the required information, including your share of the PFIC’s ordinary earnings and net capital gain.
  • Mark-to-Market Election: If you make an MTM election, report any gain or loss from the deemed sale of PFIC stock at fair market value.
  • Amended Returns: If amending a prior year’s Form 8621, clearly indicate the tax year being amended and provide accurate information for the applicable sections.
Investment - PFIC

Deadline for Filing Form 8621

Form 8621 is generally due along with your annual income tax return (e.g., Form 1040) for the applicable tax year. The filing deadline is typically April 15th of the following year. However, if you are residing outside the United States, you may qualify for an automatic two-month extension, making the deadline June 15th.

Extensions beyond these deadlines can be obtained by filing Form 4868 (Application for Automatic Extension of Time to File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return) before the original due date of your tax return. The extended deadline typically falls on October 15th.

IRS Form 8621 Penalties for Non-Filing or Late Filing

Failure to file Form 8621 or filing it incorrectly can result in significant penalties imposed by the IRS. The penalties include:

Failure-to-File Penalty

The penalty for failing to file Form 8621 by the due date (including extensions) is generally $10,000 per form. The penalty may be waived if the taxpayer can demonstrate reasonable cause for the failure to file.

Accuracy-Related Penalties

In addition to the failure-to-file penalty, taxpayers may face accuracy-related penalties if the information reported on Form 8621 is inaccurate or incomplete. The accuracy-related penalty is 20% of the underpayment of tax attributable to the PFIC-related reporting issues.

Interest Charges

In addition to penalties, taxpayers may also be subject to interest charges on any tax liabilities resulting from PFIC-related income or distributions. Interest is calculated on the amount of tax due from the original due date of the return until the date of payment.

Special Considerations

  • Amended Returns: If you discover errors or omissions on previously filed Form 8621s, consider filing an amended return (Form 1040X) to correct the information and potentially avoid penalties.
  • Reasonable Cause Waiver: The IRS may grant a waiver of penalties if the taxpayer can demonstrate reasonable cause for the failure to file or inaccuracies in the reporting.

How to Avoid Paying Taxes on PFICs?

Avoiding or minimizing taxes on Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs) requires careful planning and consideration of available tax strategies. Here are some effective methods to mitigate PFIC-related tax liabilities:

1. Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) Election

What is QEF? By making a QEF election, you can include your share of the PFIC’s ordinary earnings and net capital gains in your taxable income annually rather than waiting until distribution or sale.


  • Current taxation at ordinary income tax rates may be more favorable compared to the excess distribution regime.
  • Basis adjustment for tax purposes can reduce potential capital gains upon disposition of PFIC shares.

2. Mark-to-Market (MTM) Election

What is MTM? With the MTM election, you can mark your PFIC shares to market value annually, recognizing any gain or loss as ordinary income or loss on your tax return.


  • Simplifies reporting by avoiding complex PFIC calculations upon disposition.
  • Allows current recognition of gains and losses at ordinary income tax rates.
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3. Purging Election

What is a Purging Election? This election treats the PFIC stock as if it were sold at fair market value at the end of the tax year, recognizing any gain or loss.


  • Eliminates future PFIC reporting requirements for the purged shares.
  • Allows for a one-time recognition of gains or losses, potentially reducing future tax liabilities.

4. Consider Tax-Advantaged Accounts

Consider holding PFIC investments within tax-advantaged retirement accounts (e.g., IRAs, 401(k) plans) to defer taxation on PFIC income and gains until distributions are made.

5. Strategic Timing of Investments

Plan the timing of acquiring and disposing of PFIC shares to optimize tax consequences based on your overall tax situation and applicable tax rates.

6. Seek Professional Tax Advice

Given the complexity of PFIC rules and tax implications, seek guidance from experienced tax professionals or advisors who specialize in international tax matters.

Navigating the requirements and implications of Form 8621 for Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs) is essential for U.S. taxpayers with foreign investments. PFICs introduce unique tax considerations due to their classification under U.S. tax law, requiring shareholders to report income, gains, and distributions associated with these investments.

By staying informed about PFIC reporting obligations and leveraging available tax strategies, taxpayers can minimize tax liabilities, streamline compliance, and make informed decisions regarding their international investment portfolios.

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